Inovio scientists or scientists associated with collaborating organizations have prepared an extensive list of scientific papers documenting the utility of synthetic DNA vaccines and electroporation-based DNA delivery that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. The following links also include publications related to other technology owned by the company.

HPV/Cervical Dysplasia & Cancer

Morrow MP, Yan J, Sardesai NY. Human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccines: targeting viral antigens as immunotherapy for precancerous disease and cancer. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Mar;12(3):271-83. doi: 10.1586/erv.13.23.

Bagarazzi ML, Yan J, Morrow MP, Shen X, Parker RL, Lee JC, Giffear M, Pankhong P, Khan AS, Broderick KE, Knott C, Lin F, Boyer JD, Draghia-Akli R, White CJ, Kim JJ, Weiner DB, Sardesai NY. Immunotherapy against HPV16/18 generates potent TH1 and cytotoxic cellular immune responses. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Oct; 4:155ra13. dOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3004414.

Shin T, Pankhong P, Yan J, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Induction of robust cellular immunity against HPV6 and HPV11 in mice by DNA vaccine encoding for E6/E7 antigen. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Apr 1;8(4).

Yan J, Reichenbach DK, Corbitt N, Hokey DA, Ramanathan MP, McKinney KA, Weiner DB, Sewell D. Induction of antitumor immunity in vivo following delivery of a novel HPV-16 DNA vaccine encoding an E6/E7 fusion antigen. Vaccine. 2009 Jan 14;27(3):431-40. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.078. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

Yan J, Harris K, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Sewell D, Weiner DB. Cellular immunity induced by a novel HPV18 DNA vaccine encoding an E6/E7 fusion consensus protein in mice and rhesus macaques. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 19;26(40):5210-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.069. Epub 2008 Apr 14.

Cancer

Yan J, Pankhong P, Shin TH, Obeng-Adjei N, Morrow M, Walters JN, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Highly Optimized DNA Vaccine Targeting Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Stimulates Potent Antitumor Immunity. Cancer Immunol Res. 2013 Jul 17. doi: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0001

Jalah R, Rosati M, Ganneru B, Pilkington GR, Valentin A, Kulkarni V, Bergamaschi C, Chowdhury B, Zhang GM, Beach RK, Alicea C, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK. The p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes stabilization and export of the p35 subunit: implications for improved IL-12 cytokine production. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 1;288(9):6763-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.436675. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Ferraro B, Cisper NJ, Talbott KT, Philipson-Weiner L, Lucke CE, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Co-delivery of PSA and PSMA DNA vaccines with electroporation induces potent immune responses. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Jan-Feb;7 Suppl:120-7.

Chan RC, Gutierrez B, Ichim TE, Lin F. Enhancement of DNA cancer vaccine efficacy by combination with anti-angiogenesis in regression of established subcutaneous B16 melanoma. Oncol Rep. 2009 Nov; 22(5): 1197-203.

Choo AY, Shedlock DJ, Muthumani K. Electroporation of cytokines for cancer gene therapy. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Nov;8(22): 2123-5.

 

Hepatitis

Obeng-Adjei N, Hutnick NA, Yan J, Chu JS, Myles DJ, Morrow MP, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. DNA vaccine cocktail expressing genotype A and C HBV surface and consensus core antigens generates robust cytotoxic and antibody responses in mice and Rhesus macaques. Cancer Gene Ther. 2013 Dec 6. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2013.65.

Fournillier A, Frelin L, Jacquier E, Ahlén G, Brass A, Gerossier E, Holmström F, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Bonnefoy JY, Inchauspé G, Sällberg M. A heterologous prime/boost vaccination strategy enhances the immunogenicity of therapeutic vaccines for hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis. 2013 Sep;208(6):1008-19. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit267. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Lang Kuhs KA, Toporovski R, Ginsberg AA, Shedlock DJ, Weiner DB. Induction of intrahepatic HCV NS4B, NS5A and NS5B-specific cellular immune responses following peripheral immunization. PLoS ONE. 2012 Dec;7(12):e52165. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052165.

Obeng-Adjei N, Choo DK, Saini J, Yan J, Pankhong P, Parikh A, Chuand J, Weiner DB. Synthetic DNA immunogen encoding hepatitis B core antigen drives immune response in liver. Cancer Gene Therapy. 2012 Nov;19:779-787. doi:10.1038/cgt.2012.61.

Lang Kuhs KA, Ginsberg AA, Yan J, Wiseman RW, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, O'Connor DH, Weiner DB. Hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A DNA vaccine induces multiepitope T cell responses in rhesus macaques mimicking human immune responses. Mol Ther. 2012 Mar;20(3):669-78. doi: 10.1038/mt.2011.188.

Lang Kuhs KA, Toporovski R, Ginsberg AA, Olsen AL, Shedlock DJ, Morrow MP, Yan J, Wells RG, Weiner DB. Peripheral immunization induces functional intrahepatic hepatitis C specific immunity following selective retention of vaccine-specific CD8 T cells by the liver. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Dec;7(12):1326-35.

HIV

Kalams SA, Parker SD, Elizaga M, Metch B, Edupuganti S, Hural J, De Rosa SD, Carter DK, Rybczyk K, Frank I, Fuchs J, Koblin B, Kim DH, Joseph P, Keefer MC, Baden LR, Eldridge J, Boyer J, Sherwat A, Cardinali M, Allen M, Pensiero M, Butler C, Khan AS, Jian Y, Sardesai NY, Kublin JG, Weiner DB. Safety and Comparative Immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Combination with Plasmid Interleukin 12 and Impact of Intramuscular Electroporation for Delivery. J Infect Dis.2013;doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit236

Kulkarni V, Rosati M, Valentin A, Ganneru B, Singh AK, Yan J, Rolland M, Alicea C, Beach RK, Zhang GM, Le Gall S, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Heckerman D,Mothe B, Brander C, Weiner DB, Mullins JI, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK. HIV-1 p24(gag) derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e60245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060245. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Patel V, Jalah R, Kulkarni V, Valentin A, Rosati M, Alicea C, von Gegerfelt A, Huang W, Guan Y, Keele BF, Bess JW Jr, Piatak M Jr, Lifson JD, Williams WT, Shen X, Tomaras GD, Amara RR, Robinson HL, Johnson W, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Venzon DJ, Hirsch VM, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. DNA and virus particle vaccination protects against acquisition and confers control of viremia upon heterologous simian immunodeficiency virus challenge. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):2975-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1215393110. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Jalah R, Patel V, Kulkarni V, Rosati M, Alicea C, Ganneru B, von Gegerfelt A, Huang W, Guan Y, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, LaBranche C, Montefiori DC,Pavlakis GN, Felber BK. IL-12 DNA as molecular vaccine adjuvant increases the cytotoxic T cell responses and breadth of humoral immune responses in SIV DNA vaccinated macaques. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1;8(11):1620-9. doi: 10.4161/hv.21407. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Hutnick NA, Myles DJ, Hirao L, Scott VL, Ferraro B, Khan AS, Lewis MG, Miller CJ, Bett AJ, Casimiro D, Sardesai NY, Kim JJ, Shiver J, Weiner DB. An optimized SIV DNA vaccine can serve as a boost for Ad5 and provide partial protection from a high-dose SIVmac251 challenge. Vaccine. 2012 May 2;30(21):3202-8.

Belisle SE, Yin J, Shedlock DJ, Dai A, Yan J, Hirao L, Kutzler MA, Lewis MG, Andersen H, Lank SM, Karl JA, O'Connor DH, Khan A, Sardesai N, Chang J, Aicher L, Palermo RE, Weiner DB, Katze MG, Boyer J. Long-term programming of antigen-specific immunity from gene expression signatures in the PBMC of rhesus macaques immunized with an SIV DNA vaccine. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e19681.

Winstone N, Wilson AJ, Morrow G, Boggiano C, Chiuchiolo MJ, Lopez M, Kemelman M, Ginsberg AA, Mullen K, Coleman JW, Wu CD, Narpala S, Ouellette I, Dean HJ, Lin F, Sardesai NY, Cassamasa H, McBride D, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN, Schultz A, Hudgens MG, King CR, Zamb TJ, Parks CL, McDermott AB. Enhanced control of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication in macaques immunized with an interleukin-12 plasmid and a DNA prime-viral vector boost vaccine regimen. J Virol. 2011 Sep;85(18):9578-87.

Yan J, Corbitt N, Pankhong P, Shin T, Khan A, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Immunogenicity of a novel engineered HIV-1 clade C synthetic consensus-based envelope DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 22;29(41):7173-81.

Yin J, Dai A, Lecureux J, Arango T, Kutzler MA, Yan J, Lewis MG, Khan A, Sardesai NY, Montefiore D, Ruprecht R, Weiner DB, Boyer JD. High antibody and cellular responses induced to HIV-1 clade C envelope following DNA vaccines delivered by electroporation. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9;29(39):6763-70.

Hirao LA, Wu L, Satishchandran A, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Finnefrock AC, Bett AJ, Betts MR, Casimiro DR, Sardesai NY, Kim JJ, Shiver JW, Weiner DB. Comparative analysis of immune responses induced by vaccination with SIV antigens by recombinant Ad5 vector or plasmid DNA in rhesus macaques. Mol Ther. 2010 Aug;18(8):1568-76.

Patel V, Valentin A, Kulkarni V, Rosati M, Bergamaschi C, Jalah R, Alicea C, Minang JT, Trivett MT, Ohlen C, Zhao J, Robert-Guroff M, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. Long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses and mucosal dissemination after intramuscular DNA immunization. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 5;28(30):4827-36.

Valentin A, von Gegerfelt A, Rosati M, Miteloudis G, Alicea C, Bergamaschi C, Jalah R, Patel V, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK. Repeated DNA therapeutic vaccination of chronically SIV-infected macaques provides additional virological benefit. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 23;28(8):1962-74.

Rosati M, Bergamaschi C, Valentin A, Kulkarni V, Jalah R, Alicea C, Patel V, von Gegerfelt AS, Montefiori DC, Venzon DJ, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Van Rompay KK, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. DNA vaccination in rhesus macaques induces potent immune responses and decreases acute and chronic viremia after SIVmac251 challenge. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15831-6.

Muthumani K, Lambert VM, Sardesai NY, Kim JJ, Heller R, Weiner DB, Ugen KE. Analysis of the potential for HIV-1 Vpr as an anti-cancer agent. Curr HIV Res. 2009 Mar;7(2):144-52. Review.

Influenza

Yan J, Villarreal D.O, Racine T, Chu J.S., Walter J.N., Morrow M.P., Khan A.S., Sardesai N.Y., Kim J.J., Kobinger G.P., Weiner D.B. Protective immunity to H7N9 influenza viruses elicited by synthetic DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Mar 11. pii: S0264-410X(14)00211-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.038.

Shen X, Söderholm J, Lin F, Kobinger G, Bello A, Gregg DA, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY. Influenza A vaccines using linear expression cassettes delivered via electroporation afford full protection against challenge in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2012 Mar 7

Choo AY, Broderick KE, Kim JJ, Sardesai NY. DNA-based influenza vaccines: evaluating their potential to provide universal protection. IDrugs. 2010 Oct;13(10):707-12

Yin J, Dai A, Laddy DJ, Yan J, Arango T, Khan AS, Lewis MG, Andersen H, Kutzler MA, Draghia-Akli R, Weiner DB, Boyer JD. High dose of plasmid IL-15 inhibits immune responses in an influenza non-human primates immunogenicity model. Virology. 2009 Oct 10;393(1):49-55.

Laddy DJ, Yan J, Khan AS, Andersen H, Cohn A, Greenhouse J, Lewis M, Manischewitz J, King LR, Golding H, Draghia-Akli R, Weiner DB. Electroporation of synthetic DNA antigens offers protection in nonhuman primates challenged with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. J Virol. 2009 May;83(9):4624-30.

Laddy DJ, Yan J, Kutzler M, Kobasa D, Kobinger GP, Khan AS, Greenhouse J, Sardesai NY, Draghia-Akli R, Weiner DB. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation of synthetic consensus DNA antigens. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 25;3(6):e2517.

Immune Activators

Villarreal D, Wise MC, Walters JN, Reuschel E, Choi MJ, Obeng-Adjei2 NO, Yan J, Morrow M, Weiner DB. Alarmin IL-33 acts as an immunoadjuvant to enhance antigen-specific tumor immunity. Journal of Cancer Research. 2014 Jan 14; doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2729

Kalams SA, Parker SD, Elizaga M, Metch B, Edupuganti S, Hural J, De Rosa SD, Carter DK, Rybczyk K, Frank I, Fuchs J, Koblin B, Kim DH, Joseph P, Keefer MC, Baden LR, Eldridge J, Boyer J, Sherwat A, Cardinali M, Allen M, Pensiero M, Butler C, Khan AS, Jian Y, Sardesai NY, Kublin JG, Weiner DB. Safety and Comparative Immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Combination with Plasmid Interleukin 12 and Impact of Intramuscular Electroporation for Delivery. J Infect Dis.2013;doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit236

Jalah R, Rosati M, Ganneru B, Pilkington GR, Valentin A, Kulkarni V, Bergamaschi C, Chowdhury B, Zhang GM, Beach RK, Alicea C, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK. The p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes stabilization and export of the p35 subunit: implications for improved IL-12 cytokine production. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 1;288(9):6763-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.436675. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Morrow MP, Yan J, Pankhong P, Ferraro B, Lewis MG, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Unique Th1/Th2 phenotypes induced during priming and memory phases by use of interleukin-12 (IL-12) or IL-28B vaccine adjuvants in rhesus macaques. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Oct;17(10):1493-9.

Morrow MP, Yan J, Pankhong P, Shedlock DJ, Lewis MG, Talbott K, Toporovski R, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. IL-28B/IFN-lambda 3 drives granzyme B loading and significantly increases CTL killing activity in macaques. Mol Ther. 2010 Sep;18(9):1714-23.

Ramanathan MP, Kutzler MA, Kuo YC, Yan J, Liu H, Shah V, Bawa A, Selling B, Sardesai NY, Kim JJ, Weiner DB. Coimmunization with an optimized IL15 plasmid adjuvant enhances humoral immunity via stimulating B cells induced by genetically engineered DNA vaccines expressing consensus JEV and WNV E DIII. Vaccine. 2009 Jul 9;27(32):4370-80.

Morrow MP, Pankhong P, Laddy DJ, Schoenly KA, Yan J, Cisper N, Weiner DB. Comparative ability of IL-12 and IL-28B to regulate Treg populations and enhance adaptive cellular immunity. Blood. 2009 Jun 4. 113(23):5868-77. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-11-190520.

Other Immunotherapy & Vaccine Targets

Ferraro B, Talbott KT, Balakrishnan A, Cisper N, Morrow MP, Hutnick NA, Myles DJ, Shedlock DJ, Obeng-Adjei N, Yan J, Kayatani AK, Richie N, Cabrera W, Shiver R, Khan AS, Brown AS, Yang M, Wille-Reece U, Birkett AJ, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Inducing humoral and cellular responses to multiple sporozoite and liver-stage malaria antigens using exogenous plasmid DNA. Infect Immun. 2013 Oct;81(10):3709-20. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00180-13. Epub 2013 Jul 29.

Shedlock DJ, Aviles J, Talbott KT, Wong G, Wu SJ, Villarreal DO, Myles DJ, Croyle MA, Yan J, Kobinger GP, Weiner DB. Induction of Broad Cytotoxic T Cells by Protective DNA Vaccination Against Marburg and Ebola. Mol Ther. 2013 May 14. doi: 10.1038/mt.2013.61. 

Bao H, Ramanathan AA, Kawalakar O, Sundaram SG, Tingey C, Bian CB, Muruganandam N, Vijayachari P, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB, Ugen KE, Muthumani K. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) enhances protective immunity mediated by a CHIKV envelope protein expressing DNA Vaccine. Viral Immunol. 2013 Feb;26(1):75-83. doi: 10.1089/vim.2012.0061.

Shedlock DJ, Talbott KT, Wu SJ, Wilson CM, Muthumani K, Boyer JD, Sardesai NY, Awasthi S, Weiner DB. Vaccination with synthetic constructs expressing cytomegalovirus immunogens is highly T cell immunogenic in mice. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2012 Nov;8(11):1668 – 1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.22447.

Shedlock DJ, Talbott KT, Cress C, Ferraro B, Tuyishme S, Mallilankaraman K, Cisper NJ, Morrow MP, Wu SJ, Kawalekar OU, Khan AS, Sardesai NY,Muthumani K, Shen H, Weiner DB. A highly optimized DNA vaccine confers complete protective immunity against high-dose lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus challenge. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9;29(39):6755-62.

Ugen KE, Sardesai N, Weiner DB. DNA vaccines 2010: a gumbo of accomplishment and excitement in New Orleans. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9;29(39):6721-2.

Mallilankaraman K, Shedlock DJ, Bao H, Kawalekar OU, Fagone P, Ramanathan AA, Ferraro B, Stabenow J, Vijayachari P, Sundaram SG, Muruganandam N,Sarangan G, Srikanth P, Khan AS, Lewis MG, Kim JJ, Sardesai NY, Muthumani K, Weiner DB. A DNA vaccine against chikungunya virus is protective in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in mice and nonhuman primates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Jan 11;5(1):e928.

Sardesai NY How will diagnostics create new opportunities for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines?: 2011 Phacilitate Vaccine Forum, Washington DC Day 2, afternoon plenary session—January 25, 2011 Hum Vaccin. 2011 Jun;7(6):607-9.

Hirao LA, Draghia-Akli R, Prigge JT, Yang M, Satishchandran A, Wu L, Hammarlund E, Khan AS, Babas T, Rhodes L, Silvera P, Slifka M, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Multivalent smallpox DNA vaccine delivered by intradermal electroporation drives protective immunity in nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox challenge. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;203(1):95-102.

Electroporation Technology

Kulkarni V, Rosati M, Bear J, Pilkington GR, Jalah R, Bergamaschi C, Singh AK, Alicea C, Chowdhury B, Zhang GM, Kim EY, Wolinsky SM, Huang W, Guan Y, Labranche C, Montefiori DC, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY, Valentin A, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. Comparison of intradermal and intramuscular delivery followed in vivo electroporation of SIV Env DNA in macaques. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jun 28;9(10).

Kichaev G, Mendoza JM, Amante D, Smith TR, McCoy JR, Sardesai NY, Broderick KE. Electroporation mediated DNA vaccination directly to a mucosal surface results in improved immune responses. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jun 11; 9(10).

Diehl MC, Lee JC, Daniels SE, Tebas P, Khan AS, Giffear M, Sardesai NY, Bagarazzi ML. Tolerability of intramuscular and intradermal delivery by CELLECTRA® adaptive constant current electroporation device in healthy volunteers. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jun 4;9(10).

Hutnick NA, Myles DJF, Ferraro B, Lucke C, Lin F, Yan J, Broderick KE, Khan AS, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB. Intradermal DNA vaccination enhanced by low-current electroporation improves antigen expression and induces robust cellular and humoral immune responses. Human Gene Therapy. 2012 Sept; 23(9):943-950. doi:10.1089/hum.2012.055.

Lin F, Shen X, Kichaev G, Mendoza JM, Yang M, Armendi P, Yan J, Kobinger GP, Bello A, Khan AS, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY. Optimization of electroporation-enhanced intradermal delivery of DNA vaccine using a minimally invasive surface device. Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2012 Jun;23(3):157-68. doi: 10.1089/hgtb.2011.209. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Broderick KE, Chan A, Lin F, Shen X, Kichaev G, Khan AS, Aubin J, Zimmermann TS, Sardesai NY. Optimized in vivo transfer of small interfering RNA targeting dermal tissue using in vivo surface electroporation. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2012 Feb 14;1:e11. doi: 10.1038/mtna.2012.1.

Sardesai NY, Weiner DB Electroporation delivery of DNA vaccines: prospects for success. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011 Jun;23(3):421-9. Epub 2011 Apr 27

Broderick KE, Shen X, Soderholm J, Lin F, McCoy J, Khan AS, Yan J, Morrow MP, Patel A, Kobinger GP, Kemmerrer S, Weiner DB, Sardesai NY. Prototype development and preclinical immunogenicity analysis of a novel minimally invasive electroporation device. Gene Ther. 2011 Mar;18(3):258-65.

Broderick KE, Kardos T, McCoy JR, Fons MP, Kemmerrer S, Sardesai NY Piezoelectric permeabilization of mammalian dermal tissue for in vivo DNA delivery leads to enhanced protein expression and increased immunogenicity. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Jan-Feb;7 Suppl:22-8.

Lin F, Shen X, McCoy JR, Mendoza JM, Yan J, Kemmerrer SV, Khan AS, Weiner DB, Broderick KE, Sardesai NY A novel prototype device for electroporation-enhanced DNA vaccine delivery simultaneously to both skin and muscle. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9;29(39):6771-80. Epub 2011 Jan 1

Hirao LA, Wu L, Khan AS, Hokey DA, Yan J, Dai A, Betts MR, Draghia-Akli R, Weiner DB. Combined effects of IL-12 and electroporation enhances the potency of DNA vaccination in macaques. Vaccine. 2008 Jun 13;26(25):3112-20.

Cristillo AD, Galmin L, Restrepo S, Hudacik L, Suschak J, Lewis B, Draghia-Akli R, Aziz N, Weiss D, Markham P, Pal R. HIV-1 Env vaccine comprised of electroporated DNA and protein co-administered with Talabostat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 May 23;370(1):22-6.

Rabussay D. Applicator and electrode design for in vivo DNA delivery by electroporation. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;423:35-59.

Rice, J., Ottensmeier, C.H., Stevenson, F. DNA vaccines: precision tools for activating effective immunity against cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer, 108-120 Vol 8, Feb. 2008

Rosati M, Valentin A, Jalah R, Patel V, von Gegerfelt A, Bergamaschi C, Alicea C, Weiss D, Treece J, Pal R, Markham P, Marques ETA, August JT, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. Increased immune responses in rhesus macaques by DNA vaccination combined with electroporation. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 19;26(40):5223-9.

Draghia-Akli R., Khan AS, Brown PA, Pope MA, Wu L, Hirao LA, Weiner DB. Parameters for DNA vaccination using adaptive constant-current electroporation in mouse and pig models. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 19;26(40):5230-7.

Storer WA, Thompson Jr. DL, Bondioli KR, Godke RA, Khan AS, Brown PA, Draghia-Akli R, Evaluation of Plasmid Delivery by Electroporation as a Means of Increasing Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Production in Stallions, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol 28, nr.2, p.145-155.

Draghia-Akli R and Khan AS. Muscle and fat mass modulation in different clinical models. In "Electroporation Protocols: Experimental and Clinical Medicine" ed. Shulin Li.Humana Press, Methods Mol Biol. 2008;423:449-60.

Brown PA, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R. Delivery of DNA into skeletal muscle in large animals. In "Electroporation Protocols: Experimental and Clinical Medicine" ed. Shulin Li. Humana Press, Methods Mol Biol. 2008;423:215-24.

Cristillo AD, Weiss D, Hudacik L, Restrepo S, Galmin L, Suschak J, Draghia-Akli R, Markham P, Pal R. Persistent antibody and T cell responses induced by HIV-1 DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Feb 1;366(1):29-35.

Curcio C, Khan AS, Amici A, Spadaro M, Quaglino E, Cavallo F, Forni G, Draghia-Akli R. DNA immunization using constant-current electroporation affords long-term protection from autochthonous mammary carcinomas in cancer-prone transgenic mice. Cancer Gene Ther. Feb;15(2):108-14.

Hirao LA, Wu L, Khan AS, Satishchandran A, Draghia-Akli R, Weiner DB. Intradermal/subcutaneous immunization by electroporation improves plasmid vaccine delivery and potency in pigs and rhesus macaques. Vaccine. Jan 17 2008.;26(3):440-8.

Ahlen, G., Söderholm, J., Tjelle, T., Kjeken, R., Frelin, L., Höglund, U., Blomberg, P., Fons, M., Mathiesen, I., and Sällberg, M. In vivo electroporation enhances the immunogenicity of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 3/4A DNA by increased local DNA uptake, protein expression, inflammation, and infiltration of CD3+ T cells.1The Journal of Immunology, 179:4741-4753, 2007.

Luckay, A., Sidhu, M. K., Kjeken, R., Megati, S., Chong, S., Roopchand, V., Garcia-Hand, D., Abdullah, R., Braun, R., Montefiori, D. C., Rosati, M., Felber, B. K., Pavlakis, G. N., Mathiesen, I., Israel, Z. R., Eldridge, J. H., and Egan, M. A. Effect of plasmid DNA vaccine design and in vivo electroporation on the resulting vaccine-specific immune responses in rhesus macaques. Journal of Virology, Vol. 81, No. 10 P. 5257-5269, 2007.

Draghia-Akli R and Khan AS. In Vivo Electroporation of Gene Sequences for Therapeutic and Vaccination Applications. Recent Patents on DNA & Gene Sequences, 1:207-213.

Capone, S., Zampaglione, I., Vitelli, A., Pezzanera, M., Kierstead, L., Burns, J., Ruggeri, L., Arcuri., Cappelletti, M., Meola, A., Ercole, B.B., Tafi, R., Santini, C., Luzzago, A., Fu, T., Colloca., Ciliberto, G., Cortese, R., Nicosia, A., Fattori, E., and Folgori, A. Modulation of the immune response induced by gene electrotransfer of a hepatitis C virus DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates. The Journal of Immunology, 177: 7462-7471, 2006.

Ulmer, J.B., Wahren, B., and Liu, M.A. Gene-based vaccines: recent technical and clinical advances. Trends in Molecular Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 5, May 2006.

Capone, S., Zampaglione, I., Vitelli, A., Pezzanera, M., Kierstead, L., Burns, J., Ruggeri, L., Arcuri, M., Cappelletti, M., Meola, A., Ercole, B. B., Tafi, R., Sanitini, C., Luzzago, A., Fu, T., Colloca, S., Ciliberto, G., Cortese, R., Nicosia, A., Fattori, E., and Folgori, A. Electrotransfer of a hepatitis C virus DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates. The Journal of Immunology, 177:7462-7471, 2006.

L.Z., Zhang H., Fan X., Zhang Y., Huang J., Liu Q., Tjelle T.E., Mathiesen I., Kjeken R., Xiong S. DNA electroporation prime and protein boost strategy enhances humoral immunity of tuberculosis DNA vaccines in mice and non-human primates. Vaccine. 24(21):4565-8, May 22 2006.

Tjelle T.E., Salte R., Mathiesen I., Kjeken R. A novel electroporation device for gene delivery in large animals and humans. Vaccine 24(21):4667-70 May 22 2006.

Draghia-Akli R and Khan AS. 2006 Muscle and fat mass modulation in different clinical models. In "Electroporation Protocols: Experimental and Clinical Medicine" ed. Shulin Li. Humana Press. In press.

Brown PA, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R. 2006 Delivery of DNA into skeletal muscle in large animals. In "Electroporation Protocols: Experimental and Clinical Medicine" ed. Shulin Li. Humana Press. In press.

Hebel H, Attra H, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R. 2006 Successful parallel development and integration of a plasmid-based biologic, container/closure system and electrokinetic delivery device. Vaccine. 24(21):4607-14.

Grønevik E., Mathiesen I., Lømo T. Early events of electroporation-mediated intramuscular DNA vaccination potentiate Th1-directed immune responses. J Gene Med.,7 (9):1246-54. Sep. 2005.

Pierog J., Gazdhar A., Stammberger U., Gugger M., Hyde S., Mathiesen I., Grodzki T., Schmid R.A. Synergistic effect of low dose cyclosporine A and human interleukin 10 over expression on acute rejection in rat lung allotransplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 27(6):1030-5 Jun 2005.

Khan AS, Pope MA, Draghia-Akli R. 2005 Highly efficient constant-current electroporation increases in vivo plasmid expression. DNA and Cell Biology. 24(12), 810-8.

Buchan S., Grønevik E., Mathiesen I., King C.A., Stevenson F.K., Rice J. Electroporation as a "prime/boost" strategy for naked DNA vaccination against a tumor antigen. Journal of Immunology. 174(10):6292-8; May 15 2005.

Grønevik E., Von Steyern F.V., Kalhovde J.M., Tjelle T.E., Mathiesen I. Gene expression and immune response kinetics using electroporation-mediated DNA delivery to muscle. J Gene Med. 7(2):218-27. Oct 2004.

Scheerlinck J.P., Karlis J., Tjelle T.E., Presidente P.J., Mathiesen I., Newton S.E. In vivo electroporation improves immune responses to DNA vaccination in sheep. Vaccine. 22(13-14):1820-5. Apr 16 2004.

Tjelle T.E., Corthay A., Lunde E., Sandlie I., Michaelsen T.E., Mathiesen I., Bogen B. Monoclonal antibodies produced by muscle after plasmid injection and electroporation. Mol Ther. 9(3):328-36. Mar 2004.

Rabinovsky ED, Draghia-Akli R. 2004 Insulin-like Growth Factor I Plasmid Therapy Promotes In Vivo Angiogenesis. Molecular Therapy. 9(1):46-55.

Grønevik E., Tollefsen S., Sikkeland L.I., Haug T., Tjelle T.E., Mathiesen I. DNA transfection of mononuclear cells in muscle tissue. J Gene Med. 5(10):909-17. Oct 2003.

Heller, R. Delivery of plasmid DNA using in vivo electroporation. Preclinica, Vol. 1, No. 4, P. 198-208, September 2003.

Tollefsen S., Vordermeier M., Olsen I., Storset A.K., Reitan L.J., Clifford D., Lowrie D.B., Wiker H.G., Huygen K., Hewinson G., Mathiesen I., Tjelle T.E. DNA injection in combination with electroporation: a novel method for vaccination of farmed ruminants. Scand J Immunol. 7(3):229-38. Mar 5 2003.

Rabussay, R., Dev, N. B., Fewell, J., Smith, L.C., Widera, G., Zhang, L. Enhancement of therapeutic drug and DNA delivery into cells by electroporation. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 36(4):348-363, 2003.

Lucas, M. L., and Heller, R., IL-12 Gene therapy using an electrically mediated nonviral approach reduces metastatic growth of melanoma. DNA and Cell Biology Vol 22, Number 12, Pp. 755-763, 2003.

Draghia-Akli R, Smith LC. 2003 Electrokinetic Enhancement of Plasmid Delivery In Vivo. In: Templeton NS, Lasic DD (eds) Gene Therapy -- Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 245-263.

Khan AS, Smith LC, Abruzzese RV, Cummings KK, Pope MA, Brown PA, Draghia-Akli R. 2003 Optimization of Electroporation Parameters for the Intramuscular Delivery of Plasmids in Pigs. DNA and Cell Biology. 22(12):807-814.

Tollefsen S., Tjelle T., Schneider J., Harboe M., Wiker H., Hewinson G., Huygen K., Mathiesen I. Improved cellular and humoral immune responses against mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens after intramuscular DNA immunization combined with muscle electroporation. Vaccine. 20(27-28):3370-8. Sep 10 2002.

Zhang, L., Nolan, E., Kreitschitz, S., and Rabussay, D. P. Enhanced delivery of naked DNA to the skin by non-invasive in vivo electroporation. Biochemical et Biophysical Acta 1572:1-9, 2002.

Lucas, M.L., Heller, L., Coppola, Domenico, C., Heller, R. IL-12 Plasmid delivery by in vivo electroporation for the successful treatment of established subcutaneous B16.F10 melanoma. Molecular Therapy, Vol. 5, No. 6 p. 668-675, June 2002.

Babiuk S., Baca-Estrada M. E., Foldvari, M., Storms, M., Rabussay, D., Widera, G., Babiuk, Lorne A. Electroporation improves the efficacy of DNA vaccines in large animals. Vaccine 20:3399-3408, 2002.

Draghia-Akli R, Khan AS, Cummings KK, Parghi D, Carpenter RH, Brown PA. 2002 Electrical Enhancement of Formulated Plasmid Delivery in Animals. Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 1(5):365-371.

Rabussay, D .P., Nanda, G.S., and Goldfarb, P. M., Enhancing the effectiveness of drug-based cancer therapy by electroporation (electropermeabilization)Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment Vol 1. Number 1, 2002.

Zhang, L., Rabussay, D. P. Clinical evaluation of safety and human tolerance of electrical sensation induced by electric fields with non-invasive electrodes. Bioelectrochemistry 56:233-236, 2002.

Rabussay, D. P., Widera, G. Electroporation mediated drug & DNA delivery in oncology and gene therapy. Drug Delivery Technology 2(3):34-40, 2002.

Moens, U., Mathiesen, I., Ghelue, M. V., Rekvig, O, P. Green fluorescent protein modified to bind DNA initiates production of anti-DNA antibodies when expressed in vivo. Mol Immunol 38(7):505-14, Jan 2002

Goto, T., Nishi, T., Tamura, T., Dev, S.B., Takeshima, H., Kochi, M., Yoshizato, K., Kuratsu, J-I., Sakata, T., Hofmann, G.A. and Ushio, Y. Highly efficient electro-gene therapy of solid tumor by using an expression plasmid for the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. PNAS, 97(1):354-359, 2000.

Keating, A., Nolan, E., Filshie, R. and Dev. S.B. Ex vivo stromal cell electroporation of Factor IX cDNA for treatment of hemophilia B. In: Methods in Molecular Medicine Vol. 37, Ch 28, pp. 359-368, M.J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller, and R. Gilbert, eds., Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2000.

Widera, G., Austin, M., Rabussay, D., Goldbeck, C., Barnett, S.W., Chen, M., Leung, L., Otten, G.R., Thudium, K., Selby, M.J. and Ulmer, J.B. Increased DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity by electroporation in vivo. The Journal of Immunology, 164:4635-4640, 2000.

Yoshizato, K., Nishi, T., Goto, T., Dev, S.B., Takeshima, H., Kino, T., Tada, K., Kumura, T., Shiraishi, S., Kochi, M., Kuratsu, J-I., Hofmann, G.A. and Ushio, Y. Gene delivery with optimized electroporation parameters shows potential for treatment of gliomas. Intl. J. of Oncology, 16:899-905, 2000.

Zhang, L. In vivo skin-targeted gene delivery by pulsed electric field. In: Methods in Molecular Medicine Vol. 37, Ch. 35, pp. 473-488, M.J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller, and R. Gilbert, eds., Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2000.

Dev, S.B., Rabussay, D.P., Widera, G. and Hofmann, G.A. Medical applications of electroporation. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1):206-223, 2000. Hofmann, G.A. Instrumentation and electrodes for in vivo electroporation.Methods in Molecular Medicine Vol. 37, Ch. 2, pp. 37-61, M.J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller, and R. Gilbert, eds., Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2000.

Rizzuto G., Cappelletti M., Maione D., Savino R., Lazzaro D., Costa P., Mathiesen I., Cortese R., Ciliberto G., Laufer R., La Monica N., Fattori E. Efficient and regulated erythropoietin production by naked DNA injection and muscle electroporation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 96(11):6417-22. May 25 1999.

Mathiesen I. Electropermeabilization of skeletal muscle enhances gene transfer in vivo. Gene Therapy 6(4):508-14 Apr 1999.

Rabussay, D. and Kornhauser, S. Frequently asked questions about electroporation therapy. Medical Electronics, pp. 1-5, 1998.

Dev, S.B. and Rabussay, D.P. Electroporation therapy marches on. Cancer Watch, 7:123-124, 1998.

Nishi, T., Dev, S.B., Yoshizato, K., Kuratsu, J-I., Ushio, Y. Treatment of cancer using pulsed electric field in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or genes. Human Cell 10(1):81-86, 1997.

Zhang, L., Li, L., Hofmann, G.A. and Hoffman. Depth-targeted efficient gene delivery and expression in the skin by pulsed electric fields: An approach to gene therapy of skin aging and other diseases. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 220:633-636, 1996.

Dev, S.B. and Hofmann, G.A. Clinical applications of electroporation. Electrical manipulation of cells. pp. 185-199, P.T. Lynch, and M.R. Davey (eds.), Chapman & Hall, New York, 1996.

Matthews, K.E., Dev, S.B., Toneguzzo, F. and Keating, A. Electroporation for gene therapy. In: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol 48, Ch. 22, pp. 273-280, J.A. Nickoloff, ed., Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 1995.

Hofmann, G.A. Instrumentation. Methods in Molecular Biology: Electroporation protocols for microorganisms. Vol. 47, pp. 27-45, J.A. Nickoloff, ed., Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 1995.

Hofmann, G.A. Cells in electric fields. Physical and practical electronic aspects of electro cell fusion and electroporation. Electroporation and Electrofusion in Cell Biology, pp. 389-407, E. Neumann, A.E. Sowers and C.A. Jordan, eds., Plenum Press, NY, 1989.

Other DNA Technology

GHRH

Brown PA, Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Pope MA, Bodles-Brakhop AM, Kern DR, Effects of administration of two growth hormone–releasing hormone plasmids to gilts on sow and litter performance for the subsequent three gestations. AJVR. 2012 Sept;73(9):1428-1434.doi: 10.2460/ajvr.73.9.1428.

Bodles-Brakhop AM, Draghia-Akli R, Broderick K, Khan AS. Electroporation of plasmid DNA to swine muscle. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;709:257-64.

Khan AS, Bodles-Brakhop AM, Fiorotto ML, Draghia-Akli R. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 23;28(8):1905-10

Khan AS, Draghia-Akli R, Shypailo RJ, Ellis KI, Mersmann H, Fiorotto ML. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs. Mol Ther. 2010 Feb;18(2):327-33.

Peripheral Arterial Disease & Critical Limb Ischemia

Ouma GO, Rodriquez E, Muthumani K, Weiner DB, Wilensky RL, Mohler ER. In vivo electroporation of constitutively expressed HIF-1α plasmid DNA improves neovascularization in a mouse model of limb ischemia. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2013 July 15.doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2013.04.043

Monoclonal Antibodies

Muthumani K, Flingai S, Wise M, Tingey C, Ugen KE, Weiner DB . Optimized and enhanced DNA plasmid vector based in vivo construction of a neutralizing anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein Fab. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 9:10, 1–10; October 2013

Inducible Gene Regulation Technology

Ruxandra Draghia-Akli, P. Brandon Malone, Leigh Anne Hill, Kenneth M. Ellis, Robert J. Schwartz, and Jeffrey L. Nordstrom. Enhanced animal growth via ligand-regulated GHRH myogenic-injectable vectors. FASEB J 2002 Mar;16(3):426-8 

Osterwalder T, Yoon KS, White BH, Keshishian H. A conditional tissue-specific transgene expression system using inducible GAL4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 23;98(22):12596-601. 

Roman G, Endo K, Zong L, Davis RL. P[Switch], a system for spatial and temporal control of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 23;98(22):12602-7. 

Terada Y, Tanaka H, Okado T, Inoshita S, Kuwahara M, Akiba T, Sasaki S, Marumo F. Efficient and ligand-dependent regulated erythropoietin production by naked DNA injection and in vivo electroporation. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Oct;38(4 Suppl 1):S50-3.

Pierson TM, Wang Y, DeMayo FJ, Matzuk MM, Tsai SY, Omalley BW. Regulable expression of inhibin A in wild-type and inhibin alpha null mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Jul;14(7):1075-85. 

Abruzzese RV, Godin D, Mehta V, Perrard JL, French M, Nelson W, Howell G, Coleman M, O'Malley BW, Nordstrom JL. Ligand-dependent regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin expression by a plasmid-based autoinducible GeneSwitch system. Mol Ther. 2000 Sep;2(3):276-287.

Abruzzese, R.V., Godin, D., Burcin, M.M., Mehta, V., French, M., Li, Y., O'Malley, B.W. and Nordstrom, J.L. (1999). Ligand-dependent regulation of plasmid-based transgene expression in vivo. Hum. Gene Ther. 10, 1499-1507.

Wang, X.J., Liefer, K.M., Tsai, S.Y., O’Malley, B.W. and Roop, D.R. (1999). Development of gene-switch transgenic mice that inducibly express transforming growth factor beta1 in the epidermis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 8483-8488.

Burcin, M.M., Schieder, G., Kochanek, S., Tsai, S.Y. and O’Malley, B.W. (1999). Adenovirus-mediated regulatable target gene expression in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 355-360. 

Smith, L.C. and Nordstrom, J.L. (2000). Advances in plasmid gene delivery and expression in skeletal muscle. Curr. Opin. in Mol. Thera. 2(2), 150-154.

Chua, S.S., Burcin, M.M., Wang, Y. and Tsai, S.Y. (1999). A novel gene regulatory system. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy (Acad. Press).

VGX-1027 Anti-inflammatory Drug

Mangano K, Sardesai N, D'Alcamo M, Libra M, Malaguarnera L, Donia M, Bendtzen K, Meroni P, Nicoletti F. In vitro inhibition of enterobacteria-reactive CD4+CD25- T cells and suppression of immunoinflammatory colitis in mice by the novel immunomodulatory agent VGX-1027. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 May 31;586(1-3):313-21.

Mangano K, Sardesai NY, Quattrocchi C, Mazzon E, Cuzzocrea S, Bendtzen K, Meroni PL, Kim JJ, Nicoletti F. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov;155(5):722-30.

Maksimovic-Ivanic D, Mijatovic S, Harhaji L, Miljkovic D,Dabideen D, Cheng KF, Mangano K, Malaponte G, Al-Abed Y, Libra M, Garotta G, Nicoletti F, Stosic-Grujicic S. Anticancer properties of the novel nitric oxide-donating compound (S,R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid-nitric oxide in vitro and in vivo. Mol Ther 2008 Mar;7(3):510-20.

Stojanovic I, Cuzzocrea S, Mangano K, Mazzon E, Miljkovic D, Wang M, Donia M, Al-Abed Y, Kim J, Nicoletti F, Stosic-Grujicic S, Claesson M, In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo immunopharmacologicalactivities of the isoxazoline compound VGX-1027: Modulation of cytokine synthesis and prevention of both organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases in murine models. Clinical Immunology (2007) 123, 311–323.

Stosic-Grujicic S, Cvetkovic I, Mangano K, Fresta M, Maksimovic-Ivanic D, Harhaji L, Popadic D, Momcilovic M, Miljkovic D, Kim J, Al-Abed Y, Nicoletti F, A Potent Immunomodulatory Compound, (S,R)-3-Phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxasole Acetic Acid, Prevents Spontaneous and Accelerated Forms of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice and Inhibits the Immunoinflammatory Diabetes Induced by Multiple Low Doses of Streptozotocin in CBA/H Mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2007 320 (3): 1038-1049.